Category Archives: OGR

GDAL/OGR 1.11.0 released

The new version 1.11.0 of GDAL/OGR ( which offers major new features has been released. GDAL/OGR is a C++ geospatial data access library for raster and vector file formats, databases and web services.  It includes bindings for several languages, and a variety of command line tools.


More complete information on the new features and fixes in the 1.11.0 release can be found at

The new release can be downloaded from:

Scaling up globally: 30 years of FOSS4G development

Scaling up globally: 30 years of FOSS4G development. Keynote at FOSS4G-CEE 2013, Romania

In my presentation I briefly review 3 decades of Open Source GIS development, from the ’80th to the present.

OGR vector data tips and tricks

Get vector map extent

You can easily grep the map extent of a vector map (bounding box):

ogrinfo /cdrom/ITALY_GC.SHP ITALY_GC | grep Extent
Extent: (9.299460, 43.787362) – (13.911350, 47.070188)

Merge of two SHAPE files

Merge of two SHAPE files ‘file1.shp’ and ‘file2.shp’ into a new file ‘file_merged.shp’ is performed like this:

ogr2ogr file_merged.shp file1.shp
ogr2ogr -update -append file_merged.shp file2.shp -nln file_merged file2

The second command is opening file_merged.shp in update mode, and trying to find existing layers and append the features being copied. The -nln option sets the name of the layer to be copied to.

Vector map reprojection

We reproject from the source projection (as defined in .prj file) to WGS84/LL:

ogr2ogr vmap0rd_ll.shp -t_srs “EPSG:4326” vmap0rd.shp

If the .prj file is missing, you can use the ‘’ utility to create it if you know the EPSG code: -wkt 4326 > cities.prj

Reproject to current GRASS location projection:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “`g.proj -wf`” polbnda_italy_GB_ovest.shp polbnda_italy_LL.shp

Cut out a piece of a vector map
Use spatial query extents: -spat xmin ymin xmax ymax (W S E N)

ogr2ogr ARC_BZ.shp -spat 10 45 13 47 ARC.shp

Get VMAP0 metadata info:

ogrinfo -ro gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr
ogrinfo -ro gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr | grep bnd
ogrinfo -ro gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr ‘polbnda@bnd(*)_area’
ogrinfo -ro gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0eur/vmaplv0/eurnasia ‘roadl@trans(*)_line’

MAP0: Extract spatial subregion, reproject from NAD83 to WGS84

# coordinate order: W S E N
ogr2ogr -spat 19.95035 -26.94755 29.42989 -17.72624 -t_srs ‘EPSG:4326’ \
polbnda_botswana.shp gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr \


Sample ‘where’ statements (use -sql for PostgreSQL driver):

# -where ‘fac_id in (195,196)’
# -where ‘fac_id = 195’
ogrinfo -ro -where ‘fac_id in (195,196)’ \
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr ‘polbnda@bnd(*)_area’

VMAP0 examples

Find out the Countries VMAP0 coding:

ogdi_info -u gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr \
-l ‘polbnda@bnd(*)_area’ -f area | grep Botswana

or read the VMAP0 Military specs, page 75

Extract Botswana, reproject on the fly from NAD83 to WGS84, store as SHAPE:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “EPSG:4326” -where “na2 = ‘BC'” polbnda_botswana.shp \
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0soa/vmaplv0/soamafr ‘polbnda@bnd(*)_area’

Extract Germany, reproject on the fly from NAD83 to WGS84, store as SHAPE:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “EPSG:4326” -where “na2 = ‘GM'” polbnda_germany.shp
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0eur/vmaplv0/eurnasia ‘polbnda@bnd(*)_area’
ogrinfo -summary polbnda_germany.shp polbnda_germany | grep Extent
# Extent: (5.865639, 47.275776) – (15.039889, 55.055637)
# W S E N

VMAP0 Contour lines for Germany:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “EPSG:4326” -spat 5.865639 47.275776 15.039889 55.055637 \
contour_lines.shp \
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0eur/vmaplv0/eurnasia ‘contourl@elev(*)_line’

VMAP0 elevation spots (points) for Germany:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “EPSG:4326” -spat 5.865639 47.275776 15.039889 55.055637 \
elevation_spots.shp \
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0eur/vmaplv0/eurnasia ‘elevp@elev(*)_point’

VMAP0 lakes of Trentino province in Italy:

ogr2ogr -t_srs “EPSG:4326” -where “na2 = ‘IT'” \
-spat 10.340029 45.261888 10.98727 45.98993 \
lakes_italy.shp \
gltp:/vrf/grass0/warmerdam/v0eur/vmaplv0/eurnasia ‘inwatera@hydro(*)_area’

Connect OGR and PostgreSQL/PostGIS

ogrinfo PG:’ user=postgres dbname=ogc_simple’
ogr2ogr out.shape PG:’ user=postgres dbname=ogc_simple’ lake_geom


Convert GRASS 6 vector map to SHAPE (needs GDAL-OGR-GRASS plugin):

# -nln is “new layer name” for the result:
ogr2ogr archsites.shp grassdata/spearfish60/PERMANENT/vector/archsites/head 1 \
-nln archsites

Using WKT files with ogr2ogr

The definition is in ESRI WKT format. If you save it to a text file called out.wkt you can do the following in a translation to reproject input latlong points to this coordinate system:

ogr2ogr -s_srs WGS84 -t_srs ESRI::out.wkt out_dir indatasource

Most comand line options for GDAL/OGR tools that accept a coordinate system will allow you to give the name of a file containing WKT. And if you prefix the filename with ESRI:: the library will interprete the WKT as being ESRI WKT and convert to “standard” format accordingly. The -s_srs switch is assigning a source coordinate system to your input data (in case it didn’t have this properly defined already), and the -t_srs is defining a target coordinate system to reproject to.

TIGER files in OGR

# linear features:
ogr2ogr tiger_lines.shp tgr46081.rt1 CompleteChain

# area features:
export PYTHONPATH=/usr/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages tgr46081.rt1 tiger_area.shp

OGR CSV driver: easily indicate column types

You can now write a little csv help file to indicate the columns types to OGR. It works as follows. Suppose you have a foobar.csv file that looks like this:


Now write a foobar.csvt file like this one:


The driver will then use the types you specified for the csv columns. The types recognized are Integer, Real and String, DateTime, and Date.

Convert KML to CSV (WKT)

First find layers:

ogrinfo -so myfile.kml

Then convert KML to CSV:

ogr2ogr -f CSV out.csv myfile.kml -sql “select *,OGR_GEOM_WKT from myfilelayer”
cat out.csv

Or use the cool online converter: